« 1. No one can be deported, dismissed or deported in any way if it would force them to stay or return to an area where it can be proven that there are important reasons to believe that they would be exposed to the real risk of being exposed to torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. This principle does not allow for any restrictions or exceptions. 2. In circumstances outside the scope of paragraph 1, no asylum seeker may be turned back, repatriated or deported in any way if it would force them to remain in an area or return to an area where they could be threatened with persecution or life, physical integrity or freedom.” Elihu Lauterpacht and Daniel Bethlehem, “The scope and content of the principle of non-refoulement: opinion “, UNHCR, 20 June 2001, www.unhcr.org/protection/globalconsult/3b33574d1/scope-content-principle-non-refoulement-opinion.html (called 20 December 2016), para. 253.  ECRE, “EU strong-arms Afghanistan to accept back people in exchange for aid,” 7 October 2016 www.ecre.org/eu-strong-arms-afghanistan-to-accept-back-people-in-exchange-for-aid/ (available January 13, 2017). Although far fewer, Afghans were also the second largest group of EU asylum seekers between 2010 and 2012. EASO, “Annual Report on the State of Asylum in the European Union in 2014,” July 2015, www.bfa.gv.at/files/berichte/ EASO_Annual_Report_2014.pdf (having been consulted on 5 January 2017), p. 17  UNHCR, “Registration of Afghans in Pakistan: 2007,” and www.unhcr.org/464dca012.pdf (called 19 December 2016), p.
2. In the 1980s, Pakistan asked Afghans, who lived mainly in camps, to register with Pakistan-based mujahideen parties fighting against the government and Soviet forces. This justified them in support, but not in the official legal status. Human Rights Watch, What Are You Doing Here, 8.  UNHCR, “Winter Suspension of Facilitated Voluntary Repatriation from Pakistan,” not expired, unhcrpk.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Winter-suspension-of-facilitated-voluntary-repatriation-from-Pakistan-English.pdf (available December 22, 2016); Jared Ferrie and Aamir Saeed: “Will the UN be complicit in the illegal return of Afghan refugees to Pakistan?”  Information received by UNHCR in an e-mail, December 2016, from Human Rights Watch; UNHCR, “Summary of the Mutual Legal Assistance and Assistance Programme: January to September 2016,” and has not been recalled, unhcrpk.org/wp-content/src/2013/12/Arrest_Detention-Summary-Jan-Sep-2016-ver1.pdf (available for support on 19 October 2013). January 2017, p. 1 – 2  “President Ghani meets with Pakistani Afghans, representatives,” Bakhtar News, September 3, 2016, bakhtarnews.com.af/eng/politics/item/24698-president-ghani-meets-pakistan-based-afghans%E2%80%99-elders-representatives.html (recalled December 20, 2016); Jelena Bjelica, “Prisoner of regional tensions? The mass return of Afghan refugees from Pakistan.  Mr.