Some countries choose to go beyond the requirements of the WTO Agreements by negotiating bilateral or regional trade agreements with additional obligations and rules. While this appears contrary to the WTO principle of equal treatment of trading partners or the so-called “most-favoured-nation treatment”, bilateral or regional trade agreements are permitted as long as the criteria of Article 24 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and Article 5 of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are met.7 These articles stipulate that the agreement must eliminate customs duties. All 153 WTO members are parties to 16 WTO multilateral trade agreements on trade in goods and services, intellectual property protection, dispute settlement and trade policy review. Some members, including Canada, are also parties to two plurilateral trade agreements on civil aircraft and government procurement.6 A number of options are available to them to promote trade and investment […].